Introducing Lessons 13 – 25

The style adopted in the presentation of these lessons is a bit different from that used in the first twelve.   Nearly all the dialogues in the first lessons were played completely without much interruption.  Explanations were given before and/or after a dialogue.  However in these later lessons the  teaching points are illustrated by portions of dialogue.   Complete uninterrupted dialogues are then presented separately  as happened in the design of the original publication. 
 

 

Section 14  Traduku 

Helena:   My grandparents came from Wales. Did your father come from Wales or Ireland, Peter? 

Peter:       No, my father did not come from Ireland.  He was born in fact (efektive)  in France, although his parents, my grandparents, were English.

Helena:   How interesting!  Where in France was your father born?  Was it in Paris?  (say- whether in Paris?)

Peter:       No, my grandmother did not have [bear] him in Paris, but  in Toulouse.   My grandparents were living (say – lived) in that city. when my father was very young.

Helena:    Did your father grow up in France?

Peter:      Oh, no!  He grew up in London.  My grandfather taught French (say – the French [language]) in  a university there.

Helena:   What was your father called?  Did he have a French Christian name?

Peter:     Certainly not!  His name was Arthur.  (Arturo)

 

Answers are offered below

As previously you are recommended to commit as much to writing as possible.  There are still many interesting and challenging aspects of grammar to meet, but building competence in vocabulary increasingly takes over in importance.   The words introduced are listed alphabetically after each lesson.

 

the following to be be placed in a later lesson

 In Esperanto learning to manipulate the language’s stock of well designed ‘affixes’ and ‘wordlets’ becomes very important.  Just a few remarks here about ‘affixes’

As is stressed in various places there is really no difference between ‘ordinary’ roots and ‘affixes’.  The latter however were designed to be attached easily to other roots and to cover a number of broad categories or classes, which in other languages often require new roots.   Thus while ‘ejo’ and ‘loko’ essentially both mean ‘place’, the first has a wider coverage and can be used in circumstances where English (and other languages) may not have a single term ready.   Similarly ‘ano’ and ‘membro’.  The first is applied more broadly than the second.   Some affixes like ‘ulo’ – an ‘individual characterised by the root’- and ‘aĵo’ – a ‘thing’ or ‘substance’ being a concrete form of the root’s idea – often do not have ready equivalents in English.   Esperanto may present itself as a logical language, which indeed it generally is, but learning how affixes are really used is an acquired skill.  For instance what does the ‘concrete form’ (aĵo) of a cow really mean?  The convention is that it means the ‘meat’ of the animal.  

Please attempt the exercises before consulting the material below.

 

 

Lesson 12

Lesson 14

Lesson 13  Answers


Page 4

Ekzercu vin! – Exercise yourself!

Section 8

Kvankam li estas riĉa, tamen li estas malkontenta – Although he is rich, he is however discontent.

Kvankam hundo estas besto, tamen ĝi povas esti fidela – Although a dog is an animal, it can however be faithful

Kvankam la vetero estas tre varma. li ne volas malfermi la fenestron

Kvankam oni demandas pri mia profesio mi rifuzas respondi

Kvankam miaj gepatroj estas kristanoj, tamen nun mi ne havas religion – Though my parents are Christians,  I do not (however) have a religion.

Kvankam la knabo multe manĝas, tamen li tute ne kreskas – Though the boy eats a lot, he does not however grow at all.

Section 9

Kio estas via nomo? – Mia nomo estas Petro /  What is your name? – My name is Peter

Kiel vi nomiĝas?  – Mi nomiĝas Helena  /  How (what) are you called? – I am called Helen

Kiu vi estas?  –  Mi estas Wayne /  Who are you?  – I am Wayne

Section 10

Kie vi loĝas – Mi loĝas en Londono / Where are you living?  – I am living in London

Kie vi loĝas? – Mi loĝas en Nov-Jorko /  Where do you live?  – I live in New York

Diru vian adreson! – Mi loĝas en Parizo /  Tell (me) your address – I live in Paris

En kiu urbo vi loĝas? – Scunthorpe  /  What town do you live in?  – In Scunthorpe

Section 11  

El kiu lando vi  venas?  – Mi venas el Anglujo / What country do you come from?  – I come from England

El kiu lando Petro venas? – Li venas el Irlando / What country does Peter come from?  He comes from Ireland.

El kiu lando venas tiu sinjoro?  –  Tiu sinjoro venas el Kanado /  What country does that gentleman come from?  – That gent comes from Canada.

Page 5

Section 12

Al Helena mi donis botelon da biero – I gave Helen a bottle of beer

Al la studentoj mi donis la plenajn faktojn – I gave the students the plain facts.

Al la doktoro mi konsilas ne tro esperi – I advised the Ph.D not to hope for too much

Al sinjorino Pont mi konsilas atendi –  I advised Mrs Pont to wait.

Al la direktoro mi donis mian karton – I gave the director my card

Al ŝia fianĉo mi konsilas sekvi mian ekzemplon – I advised her fiance to follow my example. 

Section 13

senŝtata – stateless    senkaŭza –  causeless    seneduka –  uneducated     senforma – shapeless     senmorta  –  deathless

sentempa –  timeless    senedza –  husbandless     sensuna  –  sunless      senparola  –  speechless     sennoma –  nameless     senamika – friendless    senlabora  –  workless     sentegmenta – roofless   senespera – hopeless

Section 14  Traduku

Helena:   Miaj geavoj venis de Kimrio.  Ĉu via patro venis de Kimrio aŭ Irlando, Petro?

Petro:       Ne, mia patro ne venis de Irlando.   Efektive li naskiĝis en Francio, kvankam liaj gepatroj, miaj geavoj, estis angloj.

Helena:   Kiel interesa!  Kie en Francio naskiĝis via patro?  Ĉu en Parizo?

Petro:       Ne, mia avino ne naskis lin en Parizo, sed en Tuluzo.   Liaj gepatroj loĝis en tiu urbo kiam mia patro estis tre juna.

Helena:    Ĉu via patro plenkreskis en Francio?

Petro:      Tute ne!  Li plenkreskis en Londono.  Mia avo instruis la francan en universitato tie.

Helena:   Kiel nomiĝis via patro?  Ĉu li havis francan kristanan nomon?

Petro:     Certe ne!  Lia nomo estis Arturo.

 

 

 

Lesson 13 : Commit these words to memory!

Abel/o

Abel/uj/o

Adept/o

Afer/o

Afrik/o

Aĝ/o

Aŭstrali/o

Ceter/e

Ĉies

Dekstr/a

Demand/i

Demand/o

Demand/ar/o

Dev/o

De/ven/o

Di/o

Eduk/i

Fianĉ/o

Fin/i

Fin/iĝ/i

Form/o

Ĝust/a

Histori/o

Ies

Ili/a

Irland/o

Islaman/o

Je

Ĵus

Kanad/o

Kaŭz/o

Kies

Kimr/o

Kimruj/o

Knab/o

Konsent/i

Konsil/as

Konsil/i

Konsil/o

Kresk/i

Kresk/ig/i

Krist/an/o

Kvankam

Lim/dat/o

Mal/ŝpar/o

Mok/i

Mon/uj/o

Mort/i

Mort/ig/i

Naci/o

Nask/i

Nask/iĝ/o

Neces/as

Nenies

Nov-Zeland/o

Okcident/a

Ort/a (90o)

Pir/o

Pir/uj/o

Pist/i

Pist/uj/o

Popol/o

Postul/i

Prav/a

Prav/i

Profesi/o

Profesor/o

Propr/a

Rakont/i

Religi/o

Re/send/o

Rimark/i

Roz/uj/o

Sag/o

Sag/uj/o

Sankt/a

Saŭc/o

Saŭc/uj/o

Seks/o

Sen/eduk/a

Sen/form/a

Sen/kaŭz/a

Sen/mort/a

Sen/ŝtat/a

Signif/i

Ŝtat/o

Temp/o

Ties

Tro

Tro da

Tro da bier/o

Tro da hom/o/j

Tro fid/i

Tro grand/a

Tro mal/diligent/a

Tro parol/as

Tro subit/e

Uj/o

Bee

Beehive

Adherent

Affair, thing, matter

Africa

Age

Australia

Besides, moreover

Everyone’s, everybody’s

Right (side, not left)

Ask (a question)

A question

Questionnaire, form

Duty (< devi)

Origin, provenance 

God

Educate

Fiance

Finish (tr) bring to end

Finish (ntr) come to end

Shape, form

Correct, just right

History, story

Someone’s, somebody’s

Their

Ireland

Moslem (Islam/o+ano)

Related somehow 

Just, just now, 

Canada

Cause

Whose, of which 

Welshman

Wales

Boy    cf knave

Agree

Advises

Advise

Advice

Grow (intr)

Grow (tr), make grow

Christian 

(Al)though 

Deadline 

Waste

Mock, jeer

Purse, money bag

Die

Kill

Nation, nationality

Bear, give birth

Birth, become born

is necessary

No-one’s, nobody’s

New Zealand

West, western

Right angular

Pear

Pear-tree

Pound, crush

Mortar

People

Demand

Justified, right

Be right, justified

Profession, job

Professor

Own

Tell a story

Religion

Return (re+sendo)

Notice

Rose bush

Arrow

Quiver

Holy, sacred

Sauce

Sauce-boat

Sex

Uneducated

Shapeless, unformed

Unmotivated

Deathless, immortal

Stateless

Mean, signify

State, country

Time

That one’s, those ones’

Too; too much

Too ( da =quantity of)

Too much beer

Too many people

Be overtrusting

Too large

Too lazy

Talks too much

Too suddenly

Container, receptacl 

 

Lesson 12

Lesson 14